Organisation de nanoparticules de métaux nobles : application à la spectroscopie Raman exaltée de surface et à l'électrochimie

Abstract : Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) have been subjected to a growing interest these last years in various domains such as healthcare, environment or electronics. In this thesis, we were particularly interested in the application of NPs mono or bimetallic made of noble metals in plasmonic domain. In this way, we synthesized by organometallic route, monometallic NPs of gold, silver and copper with a diameter ranging from 5 to 11 nm and characterized by a narrow polydispersity. After deposition on a solid substrate, they organized themselves spontaneously in 3D forming individual supercrystals. We studied the optical properties of these supercrystals, by measuring their absorbance spectra in function of their thicknesses and the nature of the NPs. Then, we showed that these supercrystals can be used as SERS substrates. The mean diameter of the NPs is way smaller than the ones reported in the literature. These substrates display a uniform and reproductible signal from a supercrystal to another. The Raman spectra of coating agent (alkanethiols or alkylamines) have been collected and enhancement factor ranging from 103 to 104 have been calculated. After verification by electroreflectance of NPs stability over a wide potential range, we coupled SERS with electrochemistry by using a monolayer of organized gold NPs as an electrode. Coverage rates for two different molecules adsorbed on the NPs have been calculated. Moreover, we could follow and confirm the species formation during the oxydoreduction reactions of the adsorbed molecules by SERS. Finally, we synthesized core-shell NPs Au@Ag, Ag@Au and alloy NPs Cu-Au by using gold, silver and copper NPs as seeds. Their structures and chemical compositions have been studied. Their optical spectra have been measured by UV-Visible spectroscopy and simulated by DDA (Discrete Dipole Approximation). They confirmed the core-shell and alloy structures. By low frequency Raman spectroscopy, for the Au@Ag NPs, we showed a coupling between the core and the shell in accordance with the core-shell model developed in the literature. For the Cu-Au NPs, low-frequency Raman signal is in agreement with the formation of an alloy.
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Lionel Chapus. Organisation de nanoparticules de métaux nobles : application à la spectroscopie Raman exaltée de surface et à l'électrochimie. Cristallographie. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PA066258⟩. ⟨tel-01695522⟩

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