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Les microARNs : en quoi intéressent-ils les cardiologues ?

Abstract : Key points MiRNAs are small 21–22 nucleotides long RNAs transcribed from non coding genes or introns of coding genes that are involved the repression of cellular messenger RNAs by the RISC complex. Close to 2000 miRNAs have been identified in the human genome and the expression of hundreds of them is increased or decreased in pathological condition, modifying on a global scale the expression of cardiac and vascular proteins. MiRNAs regulate most cellular processes involved in the cardiovascular pathophysiology including apoptosis, proliferation and migration, left ventricle hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis and conduction. MiRNAs form a new class of therapeutic targets that can be introduced in the cells in various forms (synthetic molecules, expression vectors) or inhibited by antisens oligonucleotides called anti-miRs. MiRNAs are actively secreted by specific cells including cardiac fibroblasts and endothelial cells during certain pathophysiological processes, or passively following cell death and can be quantified in all kind of body fluids. They emerge as a new category of cardiovascular disease biomarkers, notably in the context of myocardial infarction.
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Mathias Mericskay. Les microARNs : en quoi intéressent-ils les cardiologues ?. La Presse medicale, Paris, Masson et Cie, 2015, 44 (7-8), pp.761-771. ⟨10.1016/j.lpm.2015.05.005⟩. ⟨hal-01311546⟩

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